This article is Copyright 1997 by the Author(s) listed below.
It may be freely distributed on the Internet in its entirety without
alteration provided that this copyright notice is not removed. 
It may NOT reside at another website (use links, please) other
than the URL listed above without the permission of the Author(s). 
This article may not be sold for profit nor incorporated in other
documents without he Author(s)'s permission and is provided "as is"
without express or implied warranty.

   Cindy Tittle Moore, rpd-info@netcom.com
   Copyright 1996.

Eye Problems

Following are short synopses of the most common forms of eye problems. CEACEA
(Collie Eye Anomaly) is the most common form of eye problem found in the collie, both rough and smooth variety. It is also found in the border collie,  shetland sheepdog, and bearded collie. It is believed to by controlled by a  genetic cluster, or large group of genes, and thus, it is hard to control by
breeding, and ranges in severity. PRAPRA (Progressive Retinal Atrophy) is  common in MANY breeds of dogs (including mixed breeds), and is not isolated  to the collie like the CEA tends to be.
PRA affects the entire retina and is the canine equivalent of retinitis pigmentosa. This disease manifests itself differently in different breeds.
The most common form of PRA in the collie is detectable at early age (6wks  and over).The form of PRA in Irish Setters is also early-onset. In Labrador Retrievers, on the other hand, the age of onset is much later, typically four to six years of age, making it much harder to find and isolate carriers in
this breed.

PRA has been detected as early as six weeks in puppies, and these puppies are usually blind by six to eight months. An electroretinography can be used to detect the early signs of PRA. Animals to be tested in this manner are anesthetized while lenses are placed on the eyes to record the retina's reaction to light. (Like wearing contacts.) In other cases, ophthalmological examination by ACVO-certified vets can pick up cases of PRA and confirm them with electroretinography if desired.

All dogs affected with PRA eventually go blind. Carriers show no clinical symptoms. Symptoms are subtle, starting with night blindness, some eye dilation, to progressive blindness. It's quite common to not notice anything is wrong until the dog is nearly completely blind. Proactive testing is always recommended, especially for breeding stock.

Current research is beginning to isolate the genetic markers for this disease. At present, there is a genetic test to identify carrier and affected dogs in the Irish Setter breed. Work is underway for one for the Labrador
Retriever. This disease is thought to be a simple autosomal recessive gene.
Thus two recessive genes are needed for a dog to be affected. A single recessive gene masked by the healthy dominant means the dog is a carrier.
Therefore, an affected dog's parents are carriers or also affected.
NOTE: In October 1945 the Kennel Club of England added PRA to the list of disqualifications from winning any award in the show ring. GlaucomaThis is a condition where the pressure of the fluid in the eye increases until the sight is gone in that eye. If it strikes one eye, the other eye is likely also to be affected. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in dogs. Any underlying problem that increases the fluid pressure inside the eye is the culprit; most of the time this is due to inadequate drainage of fluid from the eye (as opposed to overproduction of fluid). A few forms of glaucoma are thought to be hereditary.
Signs of glaucoma include reddened conjunctival tissue (red eye), weeping, light sensitivity, or even enlargement of the eye. As pressure increases, the pupil can become dilated and the cornea cloudy. Early diagnosis is critical to save the vision of the dog, and involves treating the underlying causes of the increased pressure if at all possible.
Once the retina is damaged and the sight is gone the options are as follows:
     * Inject the eye with a fluid which kills the fluid producing cells
       in the eye, hence no further increase in pressure and no pain.
       This is not a guaranteed solution.
     * Diode laser cyclophotoablation
     * Remove the eye and sew the lids shut. Probably the most practical.
     * Remove the eye and replace it with a prosthetic (i.e., glass eye).
       There are potential problems with infection of the eye socket.
CataractsCataracts are relatively common in dogs and most are hereditary. An ACVO-certified veterinarian can easily detect these cataracts. Haziness or cloudiness in the eyes in older animals is often not cataracts. Hereditary cataracts can be found in many breeds of dogs and can be detected early in  age, so all breeding stock should be screened for cataracts before being bred.
Cataracts may be stable or progressive. In the former case, owners may never be aware that their dog has cataracts until or unless the dog is examined. In the latter case, the dog often adapts very well to the gradual loss in vision until a certain point is reached. General diagnosis can be done by ophthalmoscopic examination; if a more detailed examination is needed, a slit lamp examination must be performed.
Surgery is the only option for cataracts that seriously impair vision. Most surgery involves removal of the lens; however, implants can also be performed. Recovery and prognosis for these dogs are generally good. Retinal Dysplasia There are several types of Retinal Dysplasia:
   Retinal Dysplasia-complete:

          Relatively rare, puppies are blind from birth and appears to be
          a simple autosomal recessive. Mostly reported in Europe. No
          skeletal abnormalities are associated with this form of RD.
   Retinal Dysplasia-folds:

          This form of RD is called "retinal and vitreal dysplasia with
          skeletal abnormalities" or "dwarfism with retinal dysplasia".
          In this disease, three different ocular phenotypes are present
          (normal, localized retinal dysplasia (retinal folds), and
          complete retinal detachment) and two different skeletal
          phenotypes are present (normal or dwarf). This is an inherited
          condition, whose mode of transmission is as follows: Call N the
          normal gene and rd the gene for retinal dysplasia.
          + N x N normal eyes, normal skeleton
          + N x rd classic symptoms, retinal folds, normal skeleton
          + rd x rd dwarfism, eye problems/blindness, skeletal problems
          The gene acts as an autosomal recessive in regards to dwarfism,
          but acts as though it were dominant when only one parent passes
          on the gene to its offspring.
          If we bred NN x Nrd we would expect half of the puppies to be
          affected the others normal. If we bred Nrd x Nrd we would
          expect the following:
          + 1/4 normal
          + 1/2 afflicted carriers, can be identified in puppies
          + 1/4 dwarf
          that the ocular and skeletal defects are inherited together,
          and that the skeletal effects act as a recessive trait and the
          ocular effects act as an incomplete dominant trait. This
          implies that 1) any Labrador with any type of RD is a carrier
          for dwarfism, and 2) at least one of the two parents of puppies
          with RD is a carrier for dwarfism. Retinal folds _may disappear
          with age_, so an accurate evaluation for RD requires that
          puppies be evaluated, ideally between 8 and 10 weeks of age.
          In mild cases of retinal dysplasia, sight is probably not
          affected much, if at all. In severe cases, skeletal
          abnormalities are present.
  Dealing with Blindness:
          Dogs that become blind rarely have all that much trouble with
          it. Unlike humans, sight is not a primary sense; dogs would be
          much more upset at losing their sense of smell. Most people
          with a blind dog find that dealing with blindness is not
          difficult nor traumatic for the dog.
          To avoid confusion, do not move your furniture around (except
          for any piece that the dog does keep bumping into. Be sure the
          dog knows when you are near so it is not startled. When you go
          out on walks, establish habitual trails. Your dog will adjust
          For more information on Canine Eye disease contact:
     CERF (Canine Eye Registration Foundation)
     South Campus Courts C, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906
          Vanderlip, Sharon Lynn, DVM. _The Collie: A Veterinary
          Reference for the Professional Breeder_.
          Dr. Lionel Rubin, V.M.D., U of PA Vet Sch on Retinal Dysplasia.
          Carrig, Sponenberg, Schmidt, Tvedten, JAVMA, Nov 1988.
          Oliivero, DVM, Retriever Field Trial News, June 1993.
          Rubin, Lionel F. _Inherited Eye Diseases in Purebred Dogs_,
          Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1989.
          CERF Publication "Ocular Disorders Proven or Suspected to be
          Hereditary in Dogs". The publication can be ordered directly
          from CERF by calling their office at (317) 494-8179.
          Barnett, KC, et al: Hereditary retinal dysplasia in the
          Labrador Retriever in England and Sweden. J of Small An Prac,
          10:755, 1970.
          Carrig, CB, et al: Retinal dysplasia associated with skeletal
          abnormalities in Labrador Retrievers. JAVMA, 170:49, 1974.
          Carrig, CB, et al: Inheritance of associated ocular and
          skeletal dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers. JAVMA, 193:1269,
          Neslon, B, MacMillan, A.: Multifocal retinal dysplasi
a in the
          field trial Labrador Retriever. JAAHA, 19:388, 1983.